Use of varietal resistance and plant-derived, insecticides as tactics in the postharvest control of weevil infesting, maize grain is economically justied and socially acceptable which are, parts of the major bases for the adoption of any postharvest manage, variety of stored maize is immune against the maize weevil infestation, as each has an element of susceptibility in it depending on the exposure, period and other interacting environmental factors. trol should be toxicologically investigated and approved. The least weight gain by the animals administered 75% seed powder of D. tripetala (4338.75 mg/kg) was an index of high powder concentration, whereas the weight loss experienced by group V animals is strongly attributed to chemical assault by permethrin designated as a standard insecticide. Insect resistant maize: recent advances and utilization. ��ڿ"}��#Ҁ��� |��_�G�$>_�'��)p��O��R:Z@_�'��(�� q?�E\��� �E_�'��)@������"�/����Pa���ȣ��� �E. Chemical insecticides applied to prevent or control insect infestations have proved the simplest and most cost effective means of … Low grain weight loss, powder production and low insect multiplication on resistant grains reduce the negative impact of the two beetle pests. Alie, S. Ansarul Haq, Seerat-u-Nissa, Sabiya Bashir, Fayaz A. Bahar, Tanveer-ul-Hassan, Abrar Yaseen Baba, Aijaz A. Lone and F.A. World hunger statistics revealed that the majority of hungry people live in developing countries where 12.9% of the population is grossly undernourished. EPPO standards – efcacy evaluation of, plant protection products – No PP1/225(1). PhD Thesis in the Department of Biology, International Journal of Current Research. Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research, ity of maize varieties to post-harvest infestation by, EPPO (2001). Conclusively, the overall manipulations advised should yield roundish, smaller, and harder-textured grains which expectedly should offer higher, Maize grain used for human consumption should be safe and of. The rationale for choice of such con-. Conventional synthetic insecticide is the chief, weapon in the ght against the weevil infestation in stored maize, The use of synthetic insecticides—the need for, Different storage systems and arrays of pesticides (usually in the, form of fumigants) have been used to preserve maize grain against, ventional synthetic chemicals on human health and ecosystem have, been on the increase. Experiments were conducted to find out the role of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. sacrosanct given location and weather variability. maize; postharvest; resistant varieties; technical guides; reorientation. In their study of maize weevil resistance involving two synthetic populations and four bi-parental populations, Dhliwayo and Pixley (2002) found that it was possible to improve weevil resistance in maize during storage using conventional breeding methods. Maize kernels treated with neem oil or ash were damaged less than the control. The maize weevil has fully developed wings, and is a stronger flyer than the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae, and spreads more widely this way. /SM 0.02 Curculionidae) under laboratory conditions. stream Eggs are laid within individual kernels, and the … All rights reserved. concentrations such as 10%, 15%, and 25% w/w were tested. Another common weakness in efcacy testing of plant, species is the absence of a scoring system. A model of pest control decisionmaking is generalized to permit choice of materials, timing, number of applications, and dosage rates. The main objective of grain storage is to maintain quality of the produce for a long period of time and the basic requirements of every grain storage structure or systems are to protect the grains from insects, rodents and prevent deterioration of the grains by the activities of microorganisms. Y�QԞ �wP�l�s��&��w厾��f��k�^!y|��!��A�ࣨ�Y�[���I�l�IE,d�9#'QXԨ�������k�������� y`�����6� ���k�*��+x���K0�����. 4 0 obj 1. poverty and global food crises. The resistant varieties, particularly 2000SYNEE-WSTR and TZBRELD3C5 maize with high resistance should be promoted for growing. A new scoring system for testing plant materials for insecticidal activities against S. zeamais infestation in stored maize, . The failure to subject effective plant materials to, toxicological and histopathological tests to reveal their safety to man, In host-plant resistance screening, it is ideal to include a known, resistant and/or susceptible variety as check. About 15 percent weight loss had been reported in … Another deciency is the inability to characterize effec-, formula of varietal susceptibility index is given as, ); beyond this, the formula is not applicable. This is sometimes rationalized by Ln (. stantial loss in grain quantity available for human use. The results also revealed that host plant resistance could significantly reducegrain damage. Effective postharvest insect pest management strategy should form part of the overall crop husbandry for preserving the quality of the produce. Management of Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais) Using Different Grain Protectants S.A. Hakeem, R.A. Wani*, B.A. zeamais_ attack. and Priorities for the Public Sector Study, (2012). fluctuations in prices paid for native pecans have destabilized the marketplace and have forced growers to carefully examine all input expenditures. Biological control of the pest is still not very, resistance and biopesticides. The weevil-maize grain culture was established by introducing about 300 to 400 unsexed adult weevils into 3000 cm3 plastic jars containing loss about 1.5 Kg of susceptible maize grain. Mechanisms of resistance in maize grain to the maize weevil and the larger grain borer. Search for other works by this author on: Oxford Academic. All available IPM tools are utilized to manage these key frugivores including pest monitoring traps and pest prediction models. that for the concentration of plant powder used in grain protec-. How will the plant with, the highest efcacy be identied among test plants given that one, would have measured about four indices (mortality of adult, tive materials for active ingredients responsible for the insecticidal, action observed. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. ers, and households are well-advised to adopt proper hygienic prac-, tices. Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Adebayo Amos Omoloye. zeamais_ adults, percent of grain damage, percent of weight loss, weight of grain flour and oviposition by the adult females. 7) Weevils develop inside the grain, females digging a tunnel into the grain with the chewing mouthparts at the end of the elongated snout before laying an egg and cementing over the opening with a gelatinous plug … At about 1/4 its body length, the granary weevil's long … The presence of normal serum levels of ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase, and creatinine; normal liver and kidney structures; and normal weight gains in the animal groups fed basal diet (control) and basal diet plus 25% D. tripetala is a strong indication that 25% D. tripetala seed powder (1446.25 mg/kg) supplementation is not toxic to the liver and kidney and therefore supports normal organ functions. /Height 188 The mortalities of the insects are dosage dependent and the period of acquaintance with the treated maize grains also contributed to the mortality of the insects. These include the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Mostch) and the rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.). Use of resistant varieties is the best approach, to overcoming the problems of synthetic insecticides in weevil control. used as grain protectant, food, and medicine. Use of the F, adults on account of requiring space for anchorage, ). Pupae, too, are similar to adults with long snouts, but they are white. or biochemical reactions and can easily be sieved out before food use. (b) Flat side of maize grain showing its surface loci in Nwosu et al. While [15] recorded the mean developmental period of S. zeamais ranging between 33 and 35 days at the mean temperature of 26 ± 2oC, [7] recorded the total developmental period of S. zeamais as 39 . It is fairly well-documented that the use of, synthetic chemicals in the preservation of food and food products, causes loss of life and has negative impact on human health (, cides for the management of storage pests is reportedly of global, concern due to associated environmental hazards, development of. More materials are being tested to ght the weevil and, ). Very similar in appearance to the Rice Weevil with characteristics described above, except that the insects are longer, adults reaching a length of 3-3.5mm: Colour: The reddish markings on the wing covers are more clearly defined. /Producer (�� Q t 4 . The rice weevil and maize weevil look similar. call, some advances and innovations have been made. In response to market pressures, IPM programs for native pecans have shifted from questions of 'when should I spray?' This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. However, breeding maize crop to improve resistance against the maize weevil is associated with some technical limitations. /AIS false To test this hypothesis, resistance indices of the weevil were assessed using a new scale developed by Nwosu et al. This species attacks both standing crops and stored cereal products, including wheat, rice, sorghum, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, peas, and cottonseed.The … PubMed. /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB doubt that some progress has been made in the international concerted, effort to combat weevil infestation in stored maize—however, tation of research focus to abate the challenges offered by the notorious. (b) Flat side of maize grain showing its surface, has been seriously suggested and in response to the, Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infesta, Guidelines on Efcacy Evaluation for the Registration of Plant, Pests of Stored Cereals and Pulses in Nigeria: Biology, Integrating Host Resistance and Plant Materials in the, . This is necessary to identify cheap, and safe materials that will serve as viable alternative to synthetic, insecticides that are inseparably associated with health and ecologi-, seed powder at 2% and 3% w/w provided effective post harvest, or 1.5ml/20g maize) have been found effective against damage by, eratures on the plant materials effective against weevil pest (. [1,2] However, at present, the preservation of maize is still inadequate, causing great losses due to oxidation and quality degradation, and mold … January 2008; 338; ABI/ INFORM Global, 52. ment of the susceptibility of some varieties of, Evaluation of certain plant leaf powders and aqueous extracts against. Whereas, increased protein, zinc, magnesium, calcium, sodium, phosphorus, manganese, iron, cobalt and starch rendered the elite maize grains susceptible to _S. the Dobie’s relation adopted by some authors is worrisome. The extracted oil by the three-solvent fraction had direct repellent and toxic effect to the weevil. , Motsch. New biological techniques for assessing the resistance of varieties of maize to postharvest infestation by S. zeamias were highlighted. The major constraint to stored maize worldwide is the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Ofuya and Lale, 2001;Zakka, 2012; The Regional Economic Threshold concept is introduced. Introduction Maize is the most important cereal and cash crop in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and is part of the staple diet for over 1.2 billion people in developing countries [1]. These insects cause weight loss of about 20 to 90 % of the untreated stored maize seeds. Indeed, resistant varieties when combined with the use of, effective plant-derived insecticides seem to hold strong promise for, weevil control in stored maize. maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais have been recognized as an increasingly important problem (Markham et al., 1994; Midega et al., 2016). Furthermore, it has been documented that the south locus of the at side of a, feeding possibly because of its soft nature and proximity to the nutri-, ent-rich embryo and this has implications for seed viability (, is suggested in the postharvest control of maize weevil. planted (laboratory and eld experience). Non-designation of a refer, ence insecticide as a standard check for screening of plants against, pose of an untreated control is to conrm the occurrence of adequate, pest infestation and to conrm that there is no natural decline in. The maize weevil was noted to bean important storage pest constraining maize production in Uganda. /Title (�� M a i z e \( g r e a t e r g r a i n \) w e e v i l \( 3 3 9 \)) However, breeding maiz, crop to improve resistance against the maize weevil is associated with some tec. ... Ayertey (2002) reported total destruction of stored maize by P. truncatus in particular cob stored maize and cassava, which the insect can reduce to powder in few months. need to x a terminal date for each generation, but this is not sac, rosanct given the inuence of the environment (, formulae have been test-run using data from several biological, reasonable doubt, some experimental data (biased by variety or, environment) are not compatible with logarithm base 10, in terms, of susceptibility indices (sometimes, producing negative values/, gures) and how can a negative value of susceptibility index be, interpreted. All rights reserved. Importance of long-term research in classical biological control: an analytical review of a release against the cabbage seed pod weevil in, http://www.extension.umn.edu/agriculture/corn/pest-management. Hermetic storage is the best among the researched methods to effectively . quality characteristics include protein content, oil value, hardness, affect the quality of grain for food use? CONCLUSION Findings will enhance reorientation of research focus and provide new impetus, for the protection of stored maize against, Maize grain is one of the major diets of millions of people in the. There was a drastic reduction in the biological activities of the insects and this was attributed to the deleterious effects of the plant powders on the normal physiology of the insects. The weevils thrive well in the tropics because of the benevolent weather which favours their biological activity. "$"$�� C�� � �" �� The use of, synthetic chemicals in grain protection causes residue problem and, health risks to maize consumers and their use is either not permitted, as medicinal plants and bone charcoal dusts of animals in the protec, tion of maize grain against weevil infestation appears to favour grain, do not taint the grains or cause increase in grain moisture. The granary weevil is more cylindrical than the rice or maize weevil and is about 1/5-inch long. The major weevil control measures include proper dpostharvest handling procedures and use of indigenous technical knowledge. ages, and limited knowledge of genetic bases of resistance. Supplementation of less than 50% (2892.5 mg/kg) is recommended in the safe use of the plant material as grain protectant, food, and medicine. The question here is how does the overall pest control process, New scale used to determine the resistance weighted, . The maize weevil is found in all warm and tropical parts of the world. 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